The Mughal Economy:
Once the economy started growing in the Mughal Empire many trade centers developed that soon grew into prosperous cities. Communication and transport facilities improved during the time of the Mughals and Sher Shah an example being the metal highways reaching various places in the empire. River transport was also important because it was a cheap and fast way of transporting goods over long distances. Bridges were also constructed to speed up the movement of land goods.
Industry had been developing and by the Mughal period it was diversified and involved a large number of people. The range and volume of products manufactured by Indian industries was large and catered to domestic and international demands. Cotton cloth making was the most important industry of the period and several manufacturing units were scattered across the country. The city of Bengal was renowned for its fine quality silk and cloth. The dyeing industry also grew as well as the Shawl and Carpet weaving did receiving major patronage during the time of Akbar.
Agriculture continued to stay an important part of the economy. The textile industry was booming and so there was a large demand for cotton and silk that were important cash crops. One negative aspect of the Mughal administration was that no major efforts were made towards agricultural development. So citizens were subject to famines.

India had flourishing trade relations with many parts of the world with foreign trade being a important part of the economy. The chief Indian Exports included textiles, spices, opium and indigo. Imports included gold, ivory, precious stones, perfumes, horses, and slaves. Although the economy flourished for the Mughals, it began its decline after the death of Aurangzeb. At the decline of the Empire the country was into chaos and finished off the poor economy.

Religion in the Mughal Empire changed greatly under the rule of Akbar. Though raised an orthodox Muslim Akbar was exposed to other beliefs during his childhood and has little patience with the pedantic views of Muslim scholars at court. During his rule he had keen interest in other religions not only tolerating Hindu beliefs in his empire but also welcoming the expression of Christian views by his Jesuit advisers. He patronized classical Indian arts and architecture and abolished many restrictions faced by Hindus in the Muslim Society. As he became steadily more hostile to Islam he began to sponsor a new form of worship called Divine Faith. It combined the characteristics of several religions with the central belief in the infallibility of all decisions reached by the Emperor.
Aurangzeb came to power the religious tolerance ended. In an effort by Aurangzeb to drive non- Muslims from the courts he adopted a number of measures that reversed the policies of religious tolerance established by Akbar. He made building new Hindu Temples prohibited and restored the Hindu poll tax. Aurangzeb forced conversions to Islam but his religious polices led to domestic unrest and to a revival of Hindu fervor during the last years of his reign.