Agriculture under the Mughal Empire remain important part of the economy,but the crop and techniques still remained largely unchanged. Though irrigation was largely absent, some areas did have access to canals and water works. Varieties of food and cash crops were grown like cotton and silk. Also tobacco, introduced in 1604 also became an important cash crop. One negative aspect was that they didnt make any major efforts in agricultural development. the impact was that the citizens were subjects to various famines which led to large scale of migration of the population within the empire and sometimes they even left india. When the Mughal Emperors did try to do something to solve the problem it was a case of too little too late.

The industries in India were very large and diversified during the Mughal Period. The most important industry of this period was the making cotton cloth. Bengal was known for their fine quality silk and cotton cloth. In fact it was said, that the amount of cloth produced in Bengal was more than most kingdoms of India and Europe put together. Shawl and carpet weaving were also important industries, receiving major patronage during the time of Akbar. The ship building industry also remained important although india was no longer a major maritime country. The impact was that the large range and volume of products manufactured by Indian industries became a large domestic and international demand. And the industrialists were often exploited by corrupt nobles and officers, who often forced them to sell goods at low prices, because it was the nobles and officers having fine tastes that encouraged the development of high quality work and demands for the products.
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Transportation were improved during this dynasty. There were several metalled highways reacting various places of the empire. Bridge constructed to speed up the movement of land transport. While some permanent bridges were built during the mughal period, fords, ferries, and boat bridges continued to be primary important in the plains, and rope suspension bridges and wooden plank bridges in the hills. The reason boat bridge was important was because it could be raised and lowered, and expanded and contracted in region where the river courses frequently change unlike permanent bridges. Also the boat bridge were more effective from miltary standpoint in the time of constant warefare, because it could be disassembled when enemy advanced but could aso quickly reassembled when desired. also river transport were used for transportation for navigable trips. This type of transportation was a cheap and fast way of transporting goods over long distances. besides carts and pack animals such as bullocks and camels, human porters were a major source of transport power carrying individuals and objects of amazing weights.